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Noms propres d'Hom- ib. L'aube du jour -m- 9 A dawn Cl'alba l'aurora L aurore 5 La rosée dew la rugiâda Les vapeurs vapours i vapori L'exhalaison exhalation l'esalaziône Le brouillard fog or mist la nébbia La nuée clouds la nùvola L'arc-en-cie rainhow l'arco baléno La pluie rain la pioggia Là grêle Jiail la grândine L'éclair lightning il lampo, baléno Le tonnerre thunder il tuono La foudre a thunder-holt il fulmine ' La neige snow la neve La gelée frost il gelo La gelée blanche wMtefrost la brina o bricâta La glace ice il diâccio DE LA TERRE.

Wednesday Thursday Mercoledi, m. June Giûgno Juillet, m. Martin Martinmas L'avent Noël, m. La moelle Les organes, m, p. Le pouls Les nerfs, m. Les paupières Le nez Les narines, f. La mâchoire Les joues, f. Le menton La fossette La barbe Les moustaches, f. Le fiet La ceinture Le côté Les côtés, f. Les cuisses Le genou Les genoux, m. Le bras L'aisselie, f. Le coude L'épawle, f. Le pouce Le petit dojgt Les ongles, m. Le dos Le sang Le lait Les larmes, f. La voix La mine La taille L'air, m. La démarche Le port La beauté La laideur Les rides, f.

Un mal complaint un maie Une douleur pain un dolore, m. Une plaie sore una piaga Une blessure wound una ferita Une cicatrice scar una cicatrice La jaunisse jaundice Titterizia - L'épilepsie falling sickness il mal cadûco L'apoplexie apoplexy l' apoplessia Une défaillance fainting un deliquio Un évanouissement swooning uno svenimento La rougeole measies la rosolia La petite vérole small-pox ilvajuolo La gale itch la rogna La gravelle the gravel la renélla La paralysie palsy la paralisîa, f.

L'hydropisie dropsy r idropisia, f. Une pustule hlister una pûsttjîa Une égratignure scratch una graffialûra Une enflure î Une tumeur 5 sweïling un' enfiagiône, f.

Acknowîedgment, pour une faveur reçue, est recon- noissance, riconosceiiza. Observation observation, animad- osservazione, f. Obéissance passive non-reristance ubbidienza, f. Tressaillement[chose5fart, startle [notion salto, slâncîo, m. View design mira, f. Humeur honrrwQ crahhedness,fretfulnessumbi fantâstico Mauvaise humeur crossness, ill-nature mal umore, m. Humeur volage fickleness incostânza, f. Humeur revêche frowardness fantasticâggine f.

Haine hatred ôdio, m. Chicaneur adultérer, adulteress adûltero, m. Paresseux idler poltrone, infingârdo, m. Parricide parricide parricida, m. Perfide perjidious person pérfido, m. Plagiaire plagiary plagiârio, m. Pilleur plunderer predatôre, m. Prétendant pretender pretendente Prévaricateur prevaricator 5 prevaricatore, tras- t gressore, m. Prodigue prodigal prôdigo, f.

Qui se fourre par tout intruder importune. Railleur hanterer motteggiatore, m. Rebelle rebel ribélle, m. Receleur receiverofstolengoods nasconditôre, m.

Rêveur dreamer, doter Yaneggiante,rimbam- Rustaud clown villanâccio, m. Sorcier sorcerer stregone, m. Sot silly person alocco, sciocco, goffo, Suborneur suborner subornât- ore, m. Traître traitor traditore, m. Transgresseur transgressor trasgressore, m. Tyran tyrant tirânno, m. Temporiseur prolonger of time indugiatore, m. Trompeur a cheat ingannat-ôre,m, rice. Usurpateur usurper usurpatore [f.

Voluptueux voluptuous person voluttuôso, m. Sobriété Solidité Soumission Sagesse Satisfaction Tempérance Valeur Vertu Vigilance Vérité repentance reserve résignation respect révérence gratitude sanctity serenity sincerity, candour sohriety solidity submission wisdom réparation tempérance valour virtue vigilance truth pentimento, VRi riserva, f.

Antidote Astringent Anodin Baume Bande Eain Bol Bouillon Breuvage Compresse Charpie Camphre Cassias Cataplasme Catholicon Cautère Cordial Corrosif Contrepoison Corne de cerf Crème de tartre Dissection Dose antidote astringent anodyne halm hand bath or batliing holus hroth potion bolster tint campliire cassia cataplasm, poult catholicon issue or caustic cordial corrosive counterpoison liartskorn cream of tartar dissection dose antidoto, m.

Thériaque Térébenthine Tisane, Vésicatoire Ventouses, f, pi. Ventouse Vomitif treacle turpentine décoction hlister cupping cupping-glass vomit teriâca, triâca, f.

Nourriture Provision Vivres, m. Les François les appellent poudins, et en Italien nous les appellerons budini o pudinghi seconde 1' Algarotti. Mule, Sarpe, Salmoni e Coracini, vi. Du sel sait del sale, m.

Du poivre De la muscade pepper nutmeg del pepe, m. Du gingembre De la cannelle ginger cinnamon pepe zénzero, m. Cloux de girofle cloves del garofano Epice Verjus Assaisonnement De l'huile spice verjuice seasoning oil délia spézie, f. Du vinaigre vinegar deir acéto, m. Champignons Mousserons mushrooms white mushrooms funghi, m. Truffes Anchois truffies anchovies tartûfi, m.

Massepain Pain d'épices Gira blettes Gelée de grosseille Oublies, f. Cornet Sucre Dragées, f. Logement Premier étage Chambre Antichambre Chambre à coucher Chambre de îanour Chambre garoie[rice roomfurnished Rez de chaussée groundfoor Chambre basse Salie basse Salle h manger dining-room Chambre de devant front room Chambre de derrière back room lodging abitazione firstfloor or story primo piano chamber or room caméra, stanza, ï. Un cabinet La galerie Second étage Le salon Le grenier Le galetas Entresol Le dépense Le cuisine Garde-manger Le lavoir La lingerie La brasserie La boulangerie Les commodités La cave a closet, study the g aller y second fioor the hall the garret the cocliloft entersole pantry kitchen stfe, larder the wash-house the laundry the hreiv-house the bake-house the water-closet the vaultfor wine câmera davanti câmera di dietro un gabinétto, m.

Une étable Les écuries Le râtelier Une remise Un puits La corde La poulie Un seau à puisef Un seau Une pompe Un jardin Jardin potager the steps the halusters a stable the mews the rack a coach-house a well the rope, cord the pulley a bucket a pail a pump a garden a kitchen-gurden scala segréta scala a chiocciola gli scalini il halaùstro una stalla le scuderie la rastrelliéra una riméssa un pozzo la fune, la corda la canùcola una sécchia un sécchio una tromba un giardino orto, orticéllo, m.

La litière La fourche L'étrille, f. La portière Timon, ni. Les rouGS Koue de devant Le moyeu Le rais Les jantes La bande de fer L'assiea L'esse, f, La soupante Les ressorts Le palosineau Les liarnois La bière tJie door coach-beam tlie wheels the fore-wheel the stock of a wlieel the spolies tliefellies of a wTieel the iron clouts the axletree the axle-pin the main b races the springs the spring-tree bar the harness the hearse lo sportéllo il timone le ruôte la ruôta d' avanti il môzzo le razze i quart!

La veste the waistcoat corpétto,m. La boîte La chaîne Le cordon La cief Des lunettes Une bague Un anneau nuptial Une bourse Une tabatière Un rasoir Une épée La lame Le tranchant Le fourreau La garde La poignée Un ceinturon Un baudrier Couteau de chasse Les éperons Une canne La pomme Une baguette Un jonc Une béquille Un porte-feuille Un craj'on Les ciseaux Une orguette the watch-case the chain the string the key spectacles a rmg a wedding-ring a pur se a snuff-hox a razor a sword a blade the edge the scahhard the Mit the handle a helt a shoulder-helt a hanger the spurs a cane the head a wand a reed a crutch a pocket-booh, a pencil scissa7's a spying-glass la cassa la caténa cordone, o nastro, m.

Uu ruban a riband nastro, m. Des manchettes ruffles i manichétti Un mantelet a cloak una mantellina Chapeau de femme a hat un capellino Bonnet, coiffe a bonnet una cuffia Un voile a veil on vélo Des gants gloves dei guanti Des bracelets bracelets gli smanigli Un manchon a miiff un manicôtto Une agrafe a clasp una bôrchia Un éventail a fan urj ventâglio ' De la dentelle lace del merlétto Un collier a necklace una collâîia, un mo- Les pendants d'oreille ear-rings gli oiecchini [nile Les joyaux jewels le gioje La toilette the toilet la tolétta, o toeiétta Un peignoir combing-cloth un accappatojo Un masque a mask Uiia rnâschera Un miroir a looking-gîass spécchio, m.

Une aiguillée Le chas Uiî paraplaie Un parasol a needIe-fuU tlie eye of a needle an umbrella a parasol una gugliâta la cruna un ombrello ombrellîno, parasole Une bavette Un bomreîet La lisière La jaquette Le fourreau Le béguin Les langes Layette, f.

De la toile linen cloth Toile grossière dowlas d'Hollande Holland cloth de coton calico de coton des Indes India calico De la flanelle Du damas Du drap De î'écariale De fa fntaine Du basin Du bombasin De la batiste De la moosseîine Du caraelot Du canevas De la caiiTiande La lisière da drap Dn brocard Du bongran Delà frise Du linge ouvré De la pîuche fiannel damask woollen cloth scarlet cloth fustian dimity bombasin cambric muslin camblet canvas callimaneo tlie list of cloth brocade buckram frieze diaper plush lela, f.

Etoffe de soie silk stuff drappo di seta Etoffe de laine woollen stuff drappo di lana t6cca,f drappo di se- De la gaze gauze Du crépon thick crape del crespoue , [ta Du tabis tabhy del tabi Du linon lawli tela di rensa De la laine filée worsted stame, m. Du point point punto, m. Un ministre Un curé Une paroisse Un diacre Un soudiacre Un vicaire Un vicariat Un clerc Un abbé Une abbesse Un prieur Un prieuré Un chapelain Un missionnaire Un prédicateur Un confesseur Un lecteur Un chantre Religieux, moine Une religieuse Un marguillier Un sacristain Un hermite Un anachorète Un fossoyeur a minister, parson a parson, rector a rectory a deacen a suh-deacon a vicar or curate a vicar ship a cîerk an ahbot an abhess a prior a priory a chaplain a missionary a preacher a confesser a reader a chanter, cJiorister afriar, monk a nun a church-warden a vestry-keeper a hermit an anachorite a grave-digger un ecclesiâstico un pârroco, curâto rettoria chiesa par- un diâcono [rocchiâle un sod diâcono un vicârio un vicariâto un chérico un abâte una badéssa un prière.

Idolâtrie idolatry r idolatria, f. Amende Jine, fo rfeit Bannissement, exile baniskment Bastonnade Baguettes, f. Blâme, reproche Captivité bastinado gantelope blâme, dispraise caplivity H una multa, ammenda bando, esilio la bastonâta le bacchétte biâsimo, rimprovero cattività, schiavitù. Gibet, potence Ignominie Indigence Infamie Limbes, m.

Halte hait alto Invasion invasion una invasione Incursion incursion una scorreria Infanterie infantry,foot r infanteria Illuminations illuminations le illuminazionl Légion légion una legione Levée levy una leva Levée d'un siège raising of a siège levâta d' un assédio Militaire warfare vita militâre Menaces threats le minâcce, pi. Paix peace la pace Patrouille pairole la pattùglia Prisonnier prisoner un prigioniéro Pillage pillage, plunder un sacchéggio Poursuite pursuit, cliase una câccia Parti party una partita, e banda Parti de traîneurs straggling party partita di soldâtisban- Perdus, égarés missing soldâti smarriti [dâti Poignée de gens liandful ofmen poca gente Peloton platoon uno squadrone Phalange phalanx una falâiige Quartier général liead-qiiartcrs quartiére générale Quartiers d'hyver winter-quarters quartiéri d'invérno Réjouissances rejoicings testa, allegria,f.

Rapine rapine rapina, ruberia, f. Reddition d'une place surrendering of a la resa d'una piazza Rançon ransom yplace riscâtto, m. Coup de canon Une salve Une arme à feu Armes blanches Laraousquéterie Un fusil Un mousquet Une monsquetade Un mousqueton Une carabine Une arquebuse Un pistolet Monture d'une arme stock of a gun La crosse [à feu the but-end una miccia corda, miccia, f. Barricade Bastion Batterie Boulevard Casemate Château Citadelle Chemin couvert Cheval de frise Courtine Contrescarpe Contre-garde Démi-lune Défense Escarpe Esplanade Embrasure Echaiiguette Fossé Fraises Fascine Fausse-braye Fort Forteresse Fortin Gabion Gabionnade Glacis Guérite harricado bastion hattery hulwark, mound casemate castle citadel covered way chevaux de frise curtain counterscarp counterfjuard half-moon defence scarp esplanade embrasure, port-hoîe watch-tower moat, dite h fraises fascine false trench fort foriress littlefort gabion gnbionade glacis Ouvrages avancés Ouvrage à corne à couronne Parapet Palissade Plateforme una barricâta un bastione una batteria baluârdo, terrapiéno una casaraâtta un castéllo una cittadélla strada copérta cavallo di frisa una cortina una contrascârpa una contragguârdia una mezzaîûna una difésa, o ripâro una scarpa una spianâta una cannoniéra veletta o vedetta, f.

Une flotte afleet una flotta, armâta Une escadre a squadron una squadra La marine the 7iavy, sea affairs la marina L' amirauté the admiralty ', the Tammiragliâto la giunta délia marina la flotta reâle una flotiglia la flotta délie Indie navy office Bureau de la marine navy-board La flotte royale the royal navy Une flottille aflotilla La flotte des Indes the Indiafleet La flotte d'Espagne the Spanish Armada la flotta Spaguuola Une armée navale Armada, large jieet un' armâta navale Les forces navales sea-forces le forze navâli Les vaisseaux shipping flotta, f.

Navire, vaisseau sMp orvessel nave, f. Les ponts the decks Le tillac L 'écoutille the liatchway Le sabord the port-hole Kang de canons tier of guns Canon de 12 livres de a twelve-poimâer balle Un pierrier Le stribord Le bâbord Le bordage L 'abordage La voile Le mât Les gémelles Le grand mât Les voiles latines Les mâts majeurs Les mâts de hune il bordo o i ponti d'un i vascéllo deck or quarter-dech la tolda, o sopra cô- 11 boccapôrto [pérta la cannoniéra [noni una batteria di can- cannone di dodici libbre di portâta un petréro, cannonci- a swivel the starboard ofa ship la parte destra [no the larloard ofa ship la parte sinîstra the side of a ship il bordo the loarding V abordâggio the sail la vêla the mast l'âlbero the cheeks of a mast le lapâzze the main-mast the lateen-saiîs the loweî' masts the top-masts V âlbero di maéstra le vêle latine gli âlberi raaggiôri âlberi di gâbbia, o so- X prapposti âlbero di trinchétto Mâts de misaine ou the fore-mast d'avant [timon Mât d'arrière owd'ar- the mizen.

Méchantes raarchan- trasli of goods robâccia, f. The Republic, menaced by the secret designs of the foreigner and by the treachery of unworthy nobles like Girolamo Grimani , Giambattista Bragadin i6ao , and Angelo Badoer i63o , enveloped herself in an ever-deepening mystery and suspicion, commit- ting the management of public affairs almost entirely to the Cabinet, the Council of Ten, and the Three Inquisitors of State, whose vigilance was directed chiefly to discovering the betrayers of State secrets.

This attitude of suspicion found an innocent victim in the patrician Antonio Foscarini a. The dangers which surrounded her rendered the Republic suspicious and diffident, not cruel. By the seventeenth century the Pozzi were almost entirely abandoned, and not more than four prisoners were found in those gloomy dungeons at the fall of the Republic, all four guilty of common crimes ; for by a humane disposition the government did not mingle together political prisoners and thieves and assassins.

The privacy of correspond- ence was not always respected. Spies in fact were so few in number or so inefficient that the lodges of the Free Masons were able to spread all through the State.

We may add that if the mysterious terror which the government was said to have inspired had not been in fact a pure invention, Venice could not have been, as she actually was down to her very last days, the gayest city in Italy. Nevertheless, in the midst of this luxurious and joyous existence, the martial valour awoke from time to time ; and even in her decline Venice proved that her terri- tories were by no means an easy prey to the Turk, with whom, had she valued her material interests above her honour, she might have made' favourable com- mercial treaties by surrendering her possessions instead of defending them.

The Turks, by this time supreme in the archipelago, were bent on the conquest of Crete, the important island which Venice in i2io4 had bought from the Marquis of Monferrat.

They declared war, and in i took Ganea. The long struggle which ensued had a disastrous issue; all the same it was ren- dered illustrious by deeds of heroism which marked each stage down to its close. Biagio Zuliani, the peer of Pietro Micca, buried himself under the ruins of Castle San Teodoro, which he scorned to surrender to the foe. Tomaso Morouni, after vainly endeavouring to close the Dardanelles, carried his flagship into the centre of five- and-twenty Turkish galleys, and died; but his fall was avenged by the Captain-General Grimani, who came up in time to throw the enemy into a panic.

Victories, each more bloody than the last, follow in quick succession. Giuseppe Dolfin, with a single galley, attacked by six of the enemies' ships, made a brave resistance, captured a Turkish vessel, and regained the Venetian fleet i Yet again, Lazzaro Mocenigo, worthy to rank with the great heroes of history, forced the passage of the Dardanelles in the teeth of tempest and foe, and when the great and terrible champion was on the very point of reaching Constantinople, the powder magazine of his ship exploded and a falling yard crushed him on the quarteiMieck The ever memorable sacrifice of Venice, who felt within her breast the last hopes of Italy and offered to Europe herself, her ships, her treasure, her noblest blood, was watched with indifference by the great Powers, who lent her slight and inefficient aid; and while the banner of San Marco was borne through hecatombs of slaughter in Eastern waters, the flags of other nations, profiting by the distress of their great rival, invaded otner seas and enlarged the borders of their commerce.

The Turks, who never for a moment wavered in their re- solve to storm Gandia, made a supreme effort against the walls of the city in ; the rain of shot carried death into the citadel and strewed the streets with the slain. And yet Candia held out. In the space of five months we hear of thirty-two assaults, seventeen sorties, six hundred and eighteen mines exploded, three thousand six hundred Venetian troops and twenty thou- sand Turks laid low. The walls dripped with blood; the streets were shambles heaped with corpses and form- less piles of lacerated limbs.

The marvellous defence continued throughout the fol- lowing year. But from those ruins rose the cry for vengeance, and in i the war with the Turk was resumed. Pope Alexander VHI sent him as a gift the symbols of command, the cap iand sword. The Doge, now in his seventy-fifth year, had the good fortune to lead his troops to fresh victories in the Levant before he died, at Nauplia, in After the death of Morosini, a large triumphal arch, adorned with paintings by Gregorio Lazzarini, was erected to his memory in the Sala dello Scrutinio.

But these were the last flickers of the flame. Alvise Mocenigo, Prowe- ditore air Arsenale, in his Relazione al Senato suite condizioni delta flotta veneta net i pub. The artillery, it is true, was abundant, numbering, at the fall of the Republic, 9, pieces of various calibre; but the forts were out of repair and insufficiently garrisoned.

The army was recruited from volunteers in receipt of pay. According to Marshal Schulemburg's design, of April 26, , its peace footing should have given dd,ooo men, to be doubled in time of war. I, Part II, p. The troops, apart from the commander-in-chief, who was always a foreigner, were officered by lieutenant-generals, brigadiers, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, captains, lieutenants, and subalterns under the orders of the Proweditori Generali and of the Savio della Scrittura, or Minister for War.

But as time went on discipline became relaxed, and drill and marching were neglected. Down to the last, however, the govern- ment did not abandon its endeavours to give order and cohesion to the miUtia; the military college of Verona, wisely planned and directed, was founded in ; in 1 77 1 the Inquisitori sopra ruoli were estabUshed, with powers to check the indiscipline and abuses of the troops ; in two compames of sappers and miners were attached to the engineers.

In the eighteenth century the joint budgets for the army and navy amounted to 2,, ducats when war was raging outside Venice, and to 1,, ducats in time of universal peace. The troops were not paid, but enjoyed some exemptions from customs duties.

Yenezia, i in a tone of generous indignation, which, however, sometimes lacks serenity of judgment. The army budget did not include the salary of the commander- in-chief. Marshal Schulemburg drew as much as a5,ooo ducats a year. But, as we have already affirmed, the ffovemment was not niggard over its military expenditure, and the following fact is enough to prove that sound and abundant food was not wanting.

It is possible that not a few Venetians would have known how to prove that the ancient valour was not extinct had the calamities and the ruin of their country not been bound up with secret causes which no personal foresight and courage availed to obviate.

The desire for reform was wide- spread ; the growing needs of civilisation, the new discoveries, the new trend of economic laws, did not pass unnoticed in the lagoons, but they failed to exer- cise a wholesome action on a body which was already decrepit and outworn.

It happened, therefore, that the government was powerless to reacquire vigour, as now, at S. Martino on the Riva degli Schiavoni, came under the supervision of a board called the Camera alVarmar, They produced a biscuit, by a process lost in our day, which had the property of defying the weevil. In i8ai a supply of biscuits, left by the Venetian government, was found in perfect condition in the island of Crete, which had passed to the Turks as long ago as Tassini, Curiosity Veneziane, p.

Notwithstanding the perilous condition of the times and the difficulties due to the antiquated machinery of government, the Venetians did endeavour to intro- duce reforms, and the Republic maintained her repu- tation for the prudence of her measures, for equity and legal acumen.

Long before constitutional monarchy and English parliamentary institutions became the model of sound government, all Europe, including England itself, sought instruction from the political wisdom of Venice. The Republic had already accepted some of the principles which underlay the great upheaval of , — such, for example, as the separation of legis- lative, executive, and judicial powers, tolerance, if not absolute Uberty, in matters of faith, the freedom of the government from all dependence on the Church.

Venice was always sincerely and profoundly CathoUc, but the authority of the Holy See was more limited there than in any other State in the world.

By a law of a Umit was set on the perpetual recurrence to Rome for indulgences and privileges, con pregiudizio air esterior disciplina regolata dalla Chiesa e dallo Stato.

In , when the population had fallen off a little, there were a6io priests who said Mass, clerks, 3 regu- lars, a nuns ; total, ScritL 12 genn, m. As early as the seventeenth century it was the custom to take a census every five years. Its object was not merely with a view to sanitary and pohce regulations ; it aimed also at economic and social ameUoration, at assisting trade and curing the evils of vagabondage and of poverty.

Gassiano ; then at S. Moisd in the Gorte Barozzi. Apostoli, and the general foreign post at the Riva del Yin at Rialto. The service of couriers, who were for the most part Bergamasques, was origi- nally arranged in under the direction of the Prov- veditori di Comun ; when the Tasso family, who also came from Bergamo, established their vast postal system in Italy and Europe, the Venetian post was entrusted to them ; but towards the close of the Cinquecento Venetian couriers succeeded in reacquiring a large part of the service ; and in the first half of the seventeenth century the Proweditori di Comun, with a view to regulating the postal service in the dominions of the Republic, issued a series of decrees touching the couriers, the postmasters, the fords on the rivers, and the traghettos between the city and the mainland, such as the traghettos of Mestre, Fusina, Cavazucherina originally called the Canal deU' Arco , Portogruaro, the Fossetta near Meolo.

But if internal navigation was encouragea, the state of the roads was deplorable, sprofondate, piene di buche, and although orders were issued and commissions appointed, which were sometimes efficient, as when the new road was opened into Tyrol, still, as a rule, the money was spent to little profit, and the regulations remained a dead letter. In 1 a government office was established for the purpose of reclaiming marsh land and dealing with the irrigation of arid tracts ; an Agricultural Board was presently associated with the Board of i, and the 1 Pavanello, La ttrada e il traghetto delia Fossetto, pp.

Antonio Zanon, at the opening of the eighteenth century, introduced the cultivation of the mulberry into Friuli, and im- proved the vineyards, for which he received a gold medal from the Republic. Schools of agriculture were opened in many cities of the mainland, and a chair of agriculture was founded at Padua in and filled by Pietro Arduino.

In that city, too, a model farm was established. In fact, throughout the dominions of the Republic, schools of navigation, of commerce, agriculture, mathe- matics, drawing, architecture, civil and military en- gineering, sprang into being, and as early as Antonio Civran, Savio agli Ordini, while addressing the Senate on the decline of the Venetian marine, advo- cated the foundation of a school for sailors in the arsenal ' ' per sparger el seme della marittima profession in chi hebbe da Dio per proprio elemento el mar.

As a last record of her past glory Venice, in , repubUshed an augmented edition of the Cbdice della veneta mercantile marina. In the preceding century the whole body of Venetian mercantile law had been gathered into a copious summary under the direction of two Soprantendenii. Printing was the most flourishing of the arts, and on his journey through Italy in the Abh6 Andres remarked that Venice possessed more hooks and more people engaged in the hook trade than any other city.

The press, though subject to censorship, was not strangled, and when the great French Encyclopaedia appeared, an edition was printed at Padua with valuahle additions and corrections, under the imprimatur of the Reformatori dello Studio. Public instruction was amply and wisely fostered.

Even as early as the Senate had turned its attention to the erection of a college for the education of indigent young nobles, and on August 17, 16 19, with the help of private donations, the Accademia dei Nobili was opened on the Giudecca, for the purpose of instructing forty impoverished noble youths, whose 1 BUanei generali, cit.. At the same time the State provided schools in each quar- ter of the city for the education of the people, where the maestri di sestiere taught the elements of religion, reading, writing, and arithmetic.

The limits of age for admission were from ten to thir- teen. The nobles remained in the Academy up to the age of twenty.

The direction was entrusted to the Padri Somaschi at the opening of the Sette- cento. In a chair of t provided not only the teaching the board and lodging of the students, but also their uniform, which con- and six laymen for the service of the college.

In a chair of civil law was founded. The government provided not only the teaching staff and sisted of a suit of black with a blue cloak Bibl.

And this vigilance went hand in hand with works which prove that the patriciate still retained some rem- nants of its ancient grandeur. In the days when Venice appeared most demorahsed and exhausted i she raised, as a bulwark against the waves of the Adriatic, that massive breakwater of the Murazzi, metres long at Pellestrina, metres long at Sottomarina, and spent about twenty million Vene- tian lire on this work, truly Roman in its boldness, — a monument of what the Republic was still capable of achieving during the very last years of her Ufe.

The Murazzi were built hj the architect Bernardino Zendrini, mathematician to the Republic. The actual inscription runs thus: Its political constitution had rendered Venice great and powerful, and not only the patriciate but also the lower classes were accustomed to look upon it as inviolable and to nourish a profound reverence for the ancient institutions.

The power of the aristocracy, sur- rounded by pomp and mystery, came to be regarded by the people as somethmg almost divine, a sacred privilege of the upper classes, who in their turn looked upon government as their absolute right, tempered, however, by duties towards the larger and the lower classes.

Such a conception of government did not conform to the dominant ideas of the new era which called for radical innovations. If the natural equality of mankind were once affirmed, the old edifice must inevitably fall to the ground never to rise again, and the ruHng class shrank from demoHshing what they knew themselves incapable of rebuilding.

The rigidity of her institutions, to which the Republic owed her long life, was also the cause of her death. Change would have meant disintegration; and the old order was maintained with a tenacity not unlike that which induces the Court of Rome to reject all innovation in spirit or in letter and is the source of her strength. When Venice came into collision with those events which changed the course of human ideas, she was bound to perish.

Events must be studied in their epoch, and every race in the light of its mission and its destiny. The infusion of new blood could not avail to save from ruin the patriciate, though, as a matter of fact, it was not yet utterly sunk in sloth and lethargy. After the wars of Candia and the Morea, with a view to replenishing the exhausted treasury, and in spite of the opinion of those who held that it THE NEW NOBLES a5 wds better to pawn the revenue or the capital of the State, or even to sell one of the provinces rather than the patriciate, the Libra doro was thrown open to many families who acquired the title of Patrizio Veneto in return for gold.

From the valleys of the Bergamasque came also Giuseppe Persico, who lodged in the shop of a silk-mercer at San Lio, servendo in essa e nella casa net pih umili servigi delta medesima, fino andare per le strode a prendere Vacqaa con bigdlo a puhblici pozzi per il servizio delta cucina.

Maffio Albrizzi, who died in decrepitude in i, also came from Bergamo; he was a haberdasher, and from him descended the patrician family of 'the Albrizzi. In it invited forty noble families of the main- land to enroll themselves in the Lihro doro without any burden whatsoever, but only nine accepted.

The title of patrician had already lost its attractions, for inside the patriciate itself distinctions created by an- cient descent and family pride continued to exist. The nobles of long pedigree regarded with contempt, and the populace witn envy, these plebeians who, thanks to their wealth, assumed the patricians' robes.

Gian Carlo Sivos, in his Cronaea Bihl. It seems that the Doge had ordered a great hanquet in the Sala dello Scrutinio at Eastertide as a proof of his lavish magnificence, but instead there was a lack of quella quantitd. The Doge fell ill of chagrin, while the nobles revenged themselves on his nephew bv refusing to elect him to a high office. The Doge took this as a personal affront, suffered acutely, and died.

A mocking epitaph records that Qui giace il gran Donado testolina Mercante e senator plusquam perfetto Fatto Doxe mori per un nanchetto Stronzk da un suo nipote per rapina. The Venetian Gianfrancesco Businello, advocate and satirist, who flourished at the opening of the seventeenth century, has left these verses: All the sons of a patrician enjoyed equal privileges and rights.

The absence of primogeniture had conferred a blessing in the earlier years of the Republic by preserving the peace among the noble families. For had cadets found themselves in a worse financial con- dition than the eldest sons, they would have used their poUtical equality to disturb both the family and the State.

Moreover, this equality of family wealth allowed each member of a family to fill government offices, even the more costly ones which only a rich man could assume; while, on the other hand, the danger that family wealth, if di- vided, would be dispersed, was counteracted by the custom which led the whole family to Uve together without a division of property; it was usual for one brother only — and that the youngest — to marry.

The Espion ehinois, cit. A Peer of the United Kingdom who has sons among the commoners loves them, understands them, exchanges ideas, shares blood and name, but does not lose prestige, does not despise, and is not despised.

The more advanced and liberal of the nobility never enter- tained the idea of altering the constitution, and con- fined themselves to fighting the little group of patricians who had concentrated the administration in their own hands, and to defending the prerogatives of the Great Council which had gradually been usurped by the Ten and the Inquisitors of State.

The leaven of these reforms had been fermenting for many years, and the fierce debates aroused by Rinieri Zeno brought about the reform of the Council of Ten in Nor was there any law prescribing equality of succession among the brothers in a family, though this did not alter the fact that all the brothers enjoyed equal political rights. They were five in number and held office for one year. The most important of their reforms belong to the seventeenth and eighteenth centurieSt notably their action regarding the Ten in i6a8 and in a.

Scipione Maffei, the illustrious Veronese savant and poet, received a sharp rebuke for having ventured to advocate representative government for the dependencies of the Republic ; and still severer measures were taken against the nobles who desired to curb the powers of the Ten and of the Inquisitors.

Lorenzo Tiepolo in , and Francesco Foscari in , were confined to their houses ; Niccol6 Bon and Paolo Doni, in the latter year, were banished one to the monastery of Venda and the second to the fortress of Palma ; in Angelo Quirini was interned in the castle of San Felice at Verona.

The arrest of Quirini brought about the reform of a with a view to appeasing the followers of the turbulent noble who were disaffected with the omnipotence of the Ten.

Quirini was released in , and returned to public life still inspired by his original views ; in he made a journey to Switzerland and France, where he met and became friends with Voltaire. But in contradistinction to these mod- erate proposals, ominous padsions swayed a section of the patriciate, inspired not by the love of liberty but by a desire to fish in troubled waters. As commerce declined and the larger part of the archipelago was lost, a body of indigent nobles gradually came into existence.

They were without income of any kind, yet by right of birth they shared the sovereignty in the State. In public they affected familiarity to ingratiate themselves with the people who paid them no heed ; in the Council chamber they gave voice to the aims of the restless and discontented who are never wanting in a State.

Tuto redato in carestia I Benedeta Fanema del d Mce Silvestro Valier, maledeta la vostra e deivostrijioi ; la giustizia di Diofubnini i vostri grandri e le vostre canive. On another occasion in various places in the Ducal Palace were found scraps of paper bearing the letters: The courage of the malcontents increased when the party of the Barnabotti found two bold leaders, Giorgio Pisani and Carlo Gontarini.

The Doge Paolo Renier remarked that true patriotism consisted not in stirring up agitations, but in a unanimous effort to secure the greatness of the State, public safety, and common glory. He published his Memorie under the title of Vita, processi e pensieri di Giorgio Pisani ex-veneto.

Only the first volume was published. See also Vecchiato's apology for Pisani Padova, During the eighteenth cen- tury they brought in a revenue which varied between five and five and a half milUons of ducats yearly. The indirect taxes were the quiiUello, or five per cent, on indirect succession ; the messetaria, or tax on contracts ; the customs dues ; the revenue from tobacco, salt, and the lottery ; the tithe on minerals.

The mint also yielded revenue not only from money coined, but also from opera- tions conducted for private individuals. The mint administered the Funds, or Monti, which were exempt from taxation except in case of death or bankruptcy. At that date the ducat corresponded to lire Ualiane For the value of money see Part I, Vol.

We may add that in the scudo veneio, of the value of 7 lire venete, was coined. Its value went on increasing; in it was worth lire venete 8. The sequin, which in was worth lire venete See Papadopoli, Sul valore della moneta ven.. Tables I and II. Torino, i, who gives the relation between the lira veneta and the lira italiana thus: In the Board of Revisers scansadori was established, and in it was entrusted with the administration of the Monti di PietJi, or Pubhc Pawnshops.

Nevertheless the budgets usually closed with a heavy deficit, while the national debt gradually mounted till it reached the capital sum of eighty million ducats, entailing a yearly outlay of two and a half milUon ducats to meet the interest and the sinking fund.

Determined efforts were made to reduce the debt, and in fact by it was considerably diminished. Besides this there were extra expenses and the cost of the spazzo, or embassy courier. The Council of Ten, which had to support its own officers, received irom 4o,ooo to 5o,ooo ducats a year. Postal expenses ran from 3a54 to ducats. In the national debt cost a,aa5,o The traditional wisdom of Venetian finance continued intact to the very last; but confined as it was within rigid formulas, it lacked the elasticity required to meet new circumstances, when times became troubled by bold and innovating theories.

That practical com- mon sense which was almost the patrimony of the Venetian patriciate neglected the science of poUtical economy which flourished so vigorously in the eigh- teenth century.

The notable economic reforms carried out in Lombardy under Austrian rule, Tuscany, and Naples, were the product of distinguished economists; but Venetian authorities, like Giammaria Ortes, Scipione Maffei, Antonio Zanon, Francesco Mengotti, and Istrian professors, like Gian Rinaldo Garli, Marcello Marchesini, and others, who handled the questions of public economy, exercised but a scanty influence on the economic prac- tice of the Republic; the illustrious Ortes, for example, 1 Lampertico, Atmertenza to Vol.

Ill of the Bilanci generalL cit. The price of money was not high. Pious foundations and confraternities offered capital on mortgages at four per cent. Merchants advanced at six per cent on bills.

Nine per cent was considered usurious. All the same usury flourished, but chiefly on the impecunious and the gamblers. Extracts from these memoirs, especially as regards Vene- tian trade, were published by Prof. Ortes e la scienza eeonomica del suo tempo. The studies of fieloch BevdlkerungsgeschicKte der R. I, corrected by Gontento II cens.

We subsist by chance and good luck. She wisely opened safe ports at Spalato in Dalmatia and Durazzo in Albania; she never relaxed her efforts to encourage navigation, and granted privileges to ship-builders, master mariners, and sea- men; she fostered insurance companies, and in she developed the grandiose scheme of ' ' commerce and customs.

Rousset, k la Haye, , II, 4i i et seq. The treaty with Venice is on pp. Gappelletti, Storia della Repubbliea, Tom. XI, reproduces the treaty translated from Latin into Italian. Their spirit of acute observation had not deserted them, and they presented admirably lucid reports not merely on the constitution, politics, reUgion, armament, and characteristics of the various countries of Europe, but also on their natural products, trade, industries, revenues, expenditures, and all the ramifications of their national life.

Vignola gives detailed information on the trade and industries of England. We may quote the following passage from a letter dated February a8, fol. Non so per qual combinazione mi venne fatto vedere ne' giorni scorsi la Terra, o sia Greta, che qui adoperasi per fabbricar Pippe. Nell' esaminarla non potei persuadere me stesso che non se ne possa trovar di consimile anche negli stati di V. Per questo cogliendo I'occasione della Nave Inglese nominata Ulmperatore Romano, che stk per sciogUere a momenti per cotesti Lidi, ho creduto mia doverosa attenzione di spedime una Mostra a cotesto gravissimo Magistrato, onde si possa riconoscere, se di equale se ne trovi neile suddette Provincie.

Quando la si raccoglie, h umida, oleosa, e pesante. Gol tempo poi diviene arida e secca. II suo colore naturale non h veramente bianco ma il tor- mento del fuoco h quello che rende Candida la Pippa. Qui ti custodisoe COMMERCE 39 Trade, however, had now ceased to attract the Vene- tians; commerce and industry were despised by the patricians, more especially by those recently ennobled. But these were excep- tions, and the rich preferred to invest in estates on the mainland.

The messetaria, which in the palmy days of Venetian trade was the sole tax imposed on commercial contracts, was followed by numerous and burdensome duties, ''da altri pesi addossati ai basti- menti, dai esorbitanti dispendi delle contumacie, peste, lazzaretti, et altro ; dalle tante spedizioni in doane diverse con numerosi ministri e stanchezzi dalla soggezione delle arti, dall' inviluppo dei vincoh che encatenano la libertJi della mercatura.

Quella poca, che io potei industriosamente procurarmi, sark in piccola Gassetta presentata a cotesto gravissimo Magistrate dalla ditta Sala- mon Treves, 'mio corrispondente e nella medesima vi troverano pure v. Senxa detta terra non avrebbe il Tabacco di Spagna quel bel colore, per cui tanto si raccomanda. II y a de grands droits sur les marchandises. The Savi and Deputati add p. Published per nozze Reali-Beretta. In fatti h ben corrisposta. The earliest notices on the subject of smug- gling and on the steps taken to check it are to be found in the papers of the Cattaver ; and the series of enactments for the repression of fraud in the lading of 1 Published per nozze Gecchini-Andreoli.

On this question of the growth of Trieste, see the report of the Board of Trade, SulV ingrandimento di Trieste nel sec. Drawn up in and pub- lished per nozze Guaita-Gozzi Venezia, ; and Marchesi, Le condizioni eommerciali di Venezia difronte a Trieste nel sec. The steady rise in the customs duties increased the activity of the smugglers, and the terrors of the law failed to damp their ardour; in armed hands they boldly broke through the customs cordons, tore down palisades, and wounded and slew the excise- men.

In the Senate appointed three of its members as customs commissioners. Smuggling was commonest on board the merchant galleys, especially those that traded to Dalmatia and Albania. On July 10, 1 6a 5, the Board of Trade received orders to draw up a dislinta, particolar et inliera nota of all bills of lading. To deal with this abuse the Senate, in 17 16, appointed a new Inquisitore sopra dazt. But the repeated erection of new offices was of no avail to remedy the evils which were eating out the heart of Venetian commerce, and the five commission- ers appointed in to assist the Board of Trade frequently found themselves in opposition to the Board itself, and their office did not last for more than fifty years.

With the decline of Venetian commerce came the collapse of her industries. INDUSTRY 43 of the estuary still flourished; they employed about thirty thousand souls, and after supplying the capital and some of the provinces, brought in a revenue oi one hundred and twenty thousand ducats by trade with other States. Venetian drugs, especially triaca, were in great demand in Turkey. River navigation, though not so flourishing as it once was, still survived.

Trade along the land routes, except the one over the passes of Pontebba and Primolano, languished. Craftsmen and dealers, arti- ficers and merchants, from all countries continued to meet in great numbers at the Ascensiontide Fair, which still retained its position in spite of the danger- ous competition of the great Fair at Senigallia, insti- tuted by Pope Clement XII.

But Venetian industries suffered from the rigid adherence to trade secrets and the empirical methods of the past, which prevented them from holding their own in competition with other nations who had availed themselves of scientific dis- coveries. The praiseworthy efforts of private indi- viduals were powerless to infuse new vigour into native industry, which found itself unable to face the altered conditions either by its innate skill or through the protection afforded by the government, though some few industries allied to arts were still able to rival the products of the preceding centuries, especially those which dealt with furniture or dress.

The glass-workers of Murano still knew how to wed the fine taste of the earUer models to the prevalent barocco style without any sacrifice of harmony. Miotti belonged to the illustrious family which, in company with the Briani, lent an impulse to the bead manufacture and to all other branches of the glass works at Murano.

To Magagnati is Ukewise due the substitution of crystal panes in windows instead of the older bottle-glass roundels. Liberale Motta carried the making of looking- glasses to perfection, and in he turned out mirrors of a size hitherto unknown. The trade in glass con- tinued to yield handsome returns during the seventeenth century, until the furnaces of France, of England, and above all of Bohemia, thanks to new mechanical and chemical discoveries, ousted the hand-worker and the blowpipe.

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D, '1 hirty Years a Master in Rugby School, 12mo. By John Parkhurst, A. Edited by the Rev. By Oliver Goldsmith, M. With a Life by the Rev. Books published by J. By William Pale y, D.

Frontispiece find Vig- nette; foolscap 8vo. Portrait and maps, 4 vols. Wilh Walton's Life of the Author. Portraits and Lives of the Autbors. Super roval 18mo, 7s. Maps, and Portraits of Dr. Complète in 2 vols. Magnésium Oxide Treatment Date: Without a master's certificate no one is allowed to open a shop in any part of the city, nor yet to work on his own account, in any private house or in a shop.

The number of hands is at present 5o. Their number at present is 1 4. Some of them have a considerable capital at their back, some but a small capital, and very many with no capital at all. These hold office for life, subject to annual reconfirma- tion. The government offices, to which the guild is subordinate, are the Giustiziere Yecchi, the Proweditori alle Artiglierie — to whom all the city guilds are also subject — the Massari all' Ori et Argenti in Gecca the bullion officers in the mint , the Officiali alia Bolla degl' Orefici or hall-mark officials , and the Proweditori in Gecca or Masters of the Mint.

When asked to give his views as to the reasons for the decay of the gmld and his proposals for its revival, the warden replied by pointing to competi- tion, and suggested still further restrictions.

But when this craft became common and the secrets of the trade were diffused, not merely among the neighbouring States but even in remote for- eign countries, orders fell off here, and little remained but purely local commissions, and even these were challenged by the few foreign artificers. There is another point: It would therefore be as well, before going any further into the question, to close the guild for twenty years, or whatever period your Excellencies may ap- prove, that is to say, to forbid expressly the articling of any new apprentices for that period, and thus to prevent the choking of the craft by a number of persons who must inevitably remain unemployed and be cast upon the city.

A much more valuable provision for the resuscitation of the craft would be the return to the ancient rule which required that aU the goldsmiths and jewellers shall be concentrated at Rialto and San Marco, or on a line between those two points.

Further, it is a common practice nowadays for hands who become masters to open shops without a penny of capital, which results in scandal to our profession and to the city ; we are, therefore, of opinion that it would have a salutary effect if a law were passed providing that no one who was not the son of a master may open a shop without first depositing twenty-five ducats in the treasury of the guild.

This would give the guild a revenue to be appUed to current expenses for which it never has funds. After inquiring into the revenue, taxes, and expenditure of the union, the Inquisitore asked for 1 Arch, di Stato, Inquis. The Gastaldo replied that the government could itself assist the trade by giving orders that when the State forests were cut the master shipwrights might choose the timber best suited to their purpose.

There was also a serious obstacle to the full development of the trade, and that was the monopoly enjoyed by the venders of pitch, who sold the raw material at exorbitant prices. Finally, said the Gastaldo, it would be of immense service to the craft if they were free to work, not only in the yards but also from rafts on the open waters, without being prevented by the Galkers' Union among the arsencJ nands.

The Squeraroli were permitted to work only on vessels hatded on shore, whereas the arsenal calkers repaired and cleaned vessels afloat. BosaoUri and Tomadori, fol. The Corte a Sa.. From lute to lute passed the hymn of praise in honour of the Adriatic's Queen, Adriatici maris regina, prudentiae sedes, mi- raculum orbis. The proverb is to be found in the Died tavole dei proverbi i See Pasqualigo, Raccolta di proverbi Veneti, p.

It is thought that Shakespeare took the proverb from the Second Fruites of Giovanni Florio, the well-known populariser of Italian literature in England. New York, igoa says: Lee, William Shakespeare, p. For the poetry relating to the history of Venice, see Medin, St. For the poetry relating to Venice in general, see the bibliographies of Gicogna and Soranxo.

Seen from the top of the Campanile of San Marco, she lay spread out in delicate white upon the bosom of the lagoon, girt by her garland of fair islands, with the shadowy Alps in the far distance and, beyond the Lido, the Adriatic dancing in sunlight.

Towards the sea five ports, or openings, gave access to the tranquil waters of the lagoon. Entering by the Chioggia port, to the left lay Chioggia itself, to the right Pelestrina, and San Pietro in Volta stretched along the shore as far as the port of Malamocco, and further on still, came the three remaining ports of Lido, Sant' Erasmo, and Treporti. Once in the basin of San Marco, on whose waters lay the old-fashioned galleys and the new type of ship with the high poop, whUe light and graceful gondolas and boats of every build and form sped over the lagoon, — on the one side you had the island of San Giorgio with its gleaming facade of white Istrian stone, built by Palladio, on the other the whole sweep of the southern part of the city, from the extreme point, the paludo of Sant' Antonio di Gastello, along the Riva degU Schiavoni, to the Dogana and the first palaces of the Grand Canal.

The lines of river communication which connected the mainland with Venice were numerous and under- went various modifications by the diversion of streams, the alteration of their courses, and the construction of canals. The great German route — the Alemagna, as it was called — started from Pordenone and followed the course of the Livenza, or from Portogruaro by the Lemene down to Caorle and the lagoon, thence by the canal Liomazor to Murano and Mazzorbo, where the custom house stood.

Giovanni e Paolo, where was the traghetto station. The so-called Lombardy route, tapping the Veronese, the Polesine, and part of the Padovano, made use of the Po, the Adige, the Bacchiglione, and the Brenta, and passing through Chioggia landed on the Riva degli Schiavoni. Nor is the impression decreased if one penetrates its streets. The history of its art is intimately con- nected with the story of its growth, and every stone recalls the glory of the past.

There is not a nook of the place where art has not scattered her treasures and in which we do not find the wedded charm of artistic riches and picturesque decay.

Venezia, says that during the period when the Brenta did not enter the lagoon, the hoats used to be hoisted from one to the other by an ingenious piece of mechanism. This machine was the property of the Pesaro family. The lizze were composed of two inclined planes sloping the one towards the lagoon, the other towards the river. The floor of these inclined planes was of stone, with cross-beams of wood.

A stout framework of wood was slipped under the boat, and both it and the boat were hauled up one plane and let down the other. The lizza, or frame, with the boat on it, was hauled up by means of a cogged wheel and a windlass which was turned by a horse. A lock took the place of the carro about the beginning of the seventeenth century. This lock was opened at Moranza about The carro at Marghera was abolished in 5, when the river Margenego was deviated, the waters of the Brentella regulated, and the Cava Gradeniga, or canal in direct communication with the lagoon, opened for traffic.

The waters which surround the city prevent it from expanding and losing its singular character, and so the houses piled and grouped themselves within the narrow circuit. The wretched tenements and dark alleys, the courts and campielli with crumbling walls, the narrow canals, all served as a foil to the palaces of the great or the sumptuous facades of the churches. The names, for the most part in dialect, usually. TabM Coyer, II, The names of two saints united in one word gave rise to strange dialectic forms: This style first manifested itself towards the close of the Cinquecento, when the national temper began to grow flaccid and demanded a tonic in strong emotions.

This peculiar mood of the mind — a mood which in art as in life prefers the complex to the simple, style to veracity, and seeks the beautiftil in the novel and the novel in the bizarre — reached its full development in the Seicento; but it is impossible to mark the confines between one artistic movement and another by the rigid division of the centuries.

Art and manners alike change gradually, and we cannot look for saUent differences between the artists of the close of one century and those who flourish in the early years of the next. Venetian architecture, which displays a stately ele- gance in Sansovino's Library i , is modified and becomes artificial in Scamozzi's continuation of the Procuratie Nuove i , though it was still learnedly correct in Palladio's facade of the Redentore The pompous ecclesiastical architecture which came into vogue after the Council of Trent had completed the counter-reformation i , found a vigorous anti- dote in Palladio's sober, serious, and weighty style.

The palaces of ambassadors and foreign envoys gave the name to tbe neighbouring street: At San Francesco della Vigna there is a Ccunpo delle Gatte, probably a corrup- tion of the word legati, or papal nuncios.

Lista was the proper name for the street in front of an embassy, as, for example, the Lista di Spagna at San Geremia, where the Spanish ambassador lived. There are other strange topographical names, such as the Ponte delle. Tette at San Gassiano, so called from the fact that the loose women of the quarter used to expose their breasts; the Calle degli Assassini at San Benedetto, which received its name from the frequent murders which took place there ; the Ponte del gquartai, at the Tolentini, so called because the limbs of malefactors were there exposed.

In spite of the efforts of baroceo to create — even in Venice — novel, daring, and pompous forms, the new style did not suc- ceed in changing the essential characteristics of the old city, and merely added a pleasins note of variety to its original beauty. Side by side with the masterpieces of the Bons, the Bregnos, Rizzo, and the Lombardi, the baroceo style — so clearly displayed in the clock tower of the courtyard at the Ducal Palace, completed in i6i5 by Bartolomeo Monopola and loaded with friezes and statuary some of it antique — is far from dis- pleasing.

Even that heavy and awkward marble bridge which joins the Ducal Palace to the prisons, — known as the Bridge of Sighs because it served as passage for prisoners, — is not entirely out of keeping with the severer buildings which flank the dark, mysterious canal. The bridge is probably the work of Antonio Contino, who, on the death of Da Ponte in , carried to a conclusion the building of the prisons.

The aim of the new style was to give life and move- ment to stone, and Venice herself by her very nature seemed to offer the aid of her sky, her sea, and the brilliancy of her setting. Certain monuments of this style are loaded with fantastic conceptions, as though the artist were endeavouring to reproduce a scene on the stage. Horizontal lines are broken and bent, columns are contorted, the mouldings are whimsically curved; ungraceful architraves and ponderous attics are combined with awkward volutes and pinnacles loaded with excessive and confused ornamentation; and yet the triumphal grandeur of the whole compels admiration, and we forget the violation of rules and the debasement Church of S.

For example, the church of the Salute, overloaded as it is in design, with its capitals, cornices, statues, festoons, nevertheless displays a vig- orous harmony which dominates this exuberance of ornamentation; in its colossal majesty it commands the entrance to the Grand Canal ana admirably completes the prospect; it would be impossible for us now to imagine the superb view deprived of that proud, grave, and solitary monument, its cupola swelling up into the circumambient atmosphere, its balustrade and vast vo- lutes gleaming across the waters in all the purity of their marmoreal whiteness.

Martinioni, in his notes to Sanso- vino's Venetia, declares that 1,, piles of oak, larch, and other woods were employed in the founda- tions. Baldassare Longhena designed the plan from the section of a temple engraved in the Hypnerotomachia of Polifilo, who thus describes it in his wonted style: It has three loggias, with coupled columns and a terrace above; on the summit is a square block or attic, which serves as a tower, surmounted by two Atlases, kneeling and bearing on their shoulders a globe of gilded copper from which springs a bronze figure of Fortune that turns on a pivot as the wind shifts.

The building was designed by Giuseppe Benoni of Trent , master builder to the Water Commissioners; it follows the style of Longhena, but is neither correct nor sober, though it possesses a certain grace of its own and a phantasy well suited to its position.

The most splendid is the Palazzo Pesaro, which rises from the Grand Canal upon massive blocks of stone carved into heads of monsters, and loaded with decoration which, however, does not destroy the statelv rhythm of the design. But in Longhena and his followers the love of the bizarre bursts out occasionally with a kind of morbid vehemence.

Longhena is, beyond doubts one of the great masters of his day ; in some of his work he unites the learning of San Michele in the elevation, the harmony of Palladio in the proportions, the phantasy of Scamozzi in the decorative effects.

Giuseppe Sardi, who was born near Lugano in i63o and died in Venice in , rivalled Longhena in his extravagances rather than in the power of his imagina- tion. The facade of San Moisfe by Alessandro Tremignon is also loaded with strange and extravagant ornamentation, though it does not lack a certain picturesqueness ; and the same may be said of Sant' Eustachio by Domenico Rossi , and of the Gesuiti by Giambattista Fat- toretto 17 1 5. Sculpture lent but little aid, and that not beautiful, to the architectural audacities of the day.

The move- ment begun in the Seicento reached its culmination when the sense of harmonious grandeur gradually decUned, and ended in bombastic ideas and forms; and the search for realistic presentment was replaced by the false and the ugly. Alessandro Vittoria, who modelled portrait busts with such marvellous veracity that they seem to be taken from the living mask, was actually contemporary with the unknown sculptor of the colossal grotesque which forms the keystone to the door of the campanile of Santa Maria Formosa.

It represents a huge head, monstrous and ignoble, with its sardonic and obscene leer ; rightly did Ruskin declare that human fancy could fall no lower. The distortion of the features, which render the mask at once disgusting and grotesque, is not a mere result of artistic caprice. The artist had seen with his own eyes the model he chose and fixed its lineaments. They display all the salient characteristics of a special nervous affection, so clearly marked that it is impossible to mistake them.

We do not know if a similar intention inspired the sculptor of the mask on the door of the Campanile of San Bartolomeo.

Gian Lorenio Bernini had warm admirers in Venice, and Cardinal Federico Comaro, in i, commissioned him to decorate the chapel of Santa Maria della Vittoria, where we have the marvellous group of Santa Teresa in ecstasy. Some of his work, however, is to be found in the city, — the monument to Cardinal Giovanni Delfino in San Michele in Isola, finished in 1 6a 3, and the bust of Cardinal Agostino Vaher, finished in i and now in the Patriarchal Semi- nary.

In his old age and with the help of his three sons he produced the credi- table reliefs for the Rosario Chapel at SS. Giovanni e Paolo, in Other sculptors, hardly worth naming here, are responsible for the statues of angels and epileptic saints, whose contorted and tormented forms, wrapped in wind-blown drapery, writhe on the tympanums and on the barocco facades of Sant' Eustachip, of the Gesuiti, the Scaki, and Santa Maria del GigUo.

Carving in wood was less debased, and can boast the work of two strong artists, Francesco Pianta, a Venetian, and Andrea Brustolon of Belluno. The beginning of the eighteenth century saw a reac- tion in architecture, due to the writings and the propa- ganda of the Venetian, Fra Carlo Lodoli i , who desired to restore to fame the names of Vitruvius and Palladio. Tirali had already shown himself a ready disciple of Palladio in the elevations of his churches, San Vitale and San Niccol6 da Tolentino.

But this revival soon degenerated into a cold and tedious classicism, which lacked all sense of the grand or the picturesque, — qualities which still characterised the barocco style and made themselves felt in the Palazzo Corner della Regina i7a4 designed by Dome- nico Rossi, the Palazzo Labia by Andrea Cominelli, the Palazzo Zenobio opening years of the Settecento by Antonio Gaspari, the Palazzo Pisani at Santo Stefano, begun in the sixteenth century, but only finished two centuries later by the Paduan, Girolamo Frigimelica.

In opposition to this licentious art, which, however, was not lacking in dignity, there arose a cold academic school of builders: In like manner sculpture began to weary of barocco intemperance, and tentatively sought a new way, led by Antonio Gai cir.

The progress of painting, which during a certain period may be considered as the typical Venetian art, — reproducing, as it did, in vivid colours the light-hearted life of the city, — was hardly less varied than that of sculpture. With Jacopo Tintoretto d. Tintoretto's followers imitated only his carelessness and his rapidity, which in his case was due to' the lightning-like speed of his imagination, but became in their hands a mere cold, mechanical trick.

The chief of his imitators was his son Domenico i56a- 1 , who painted much in the Ducal Palace, the homes of the nobility, and the churches. Hasty draw- ing and careless colouring, crowded composition, exag- gerated movement, — all the defects, in short, which down to the close of the Cinquecento marred the Vene- tian school in but a slight degree, produced the excesses and the license which characterise the manieristi of the Seicento.

The leader of this school was Jacopo Palma the younger i 6a 8 ; he began with a marked severity of manner, but as the years went by he Church of S. Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino from his native city iSgo-iGBo , still retained, though in a feebler degree, some of Titian's great manner.

He painted the ceiling of San- sovino's Library, and in the churches of the Salute, the Carmini, San Pietro di Castello, San Giacomo dall' Orio, he has left pictures which still recall the grand style of the preceding century, though he never again reached the excellence he displayed in his ''Marriage of Cana," executed for the Paduan monastery of San Giovanni di Verdara.

Painting declined in the emotional qualities, while developing pomposity. The artist devoted his whole attention to effect ; colour is no longer an essential ele- ment in the presentation, but is applied as a superficial adjunct, or else follows the new school of the tenebrosi with their black and greasy impasto, — a style intro- duced into Venice about the middle of the seventeenth century by admirers and imitators of Caravaggio, like the Genoese Bernardo Strozzi and Agostino Gassana, Pietro Ricchi of Lucca, and the Milanese Federico Cervelli.

Nevertheless, in spite of conventionality, violation of laws, and patent defectiveness, painting, like sculpture, still retained a remarkable sense for decoration. In the Basilica of San Marco, whose grave reUgious atmosphere had already been disturbed by the joyous creations of Titian, Paolo, and Tintoretto, a crowd of figures more light- hearted still, assume irreverent poses side by side with the austere lions of Byzantine workmanship, in the mosaics executed from cartoons by Palma Giovane, Girolamo Pilotto fl.

In the Scuola di San Rocco, peopled by Tintoretto's creations, which seem like a giant's off- spring, the figures in two pictures representing the plague of i63o, painted by Antonio Zanchi , author of the ceiUng of the Scuola di San Girolamo, and by Pietro Negri b.

The immense ceiling of San Pantaleone, on which is painted the apotheosis of the saint, in spite of its obvious defects and confusion, proves that the artist, Giannantonio Fumiani, possessed a fertile imagination and a large and facile manner. Little now remains of the pictures painted for the palaces of patricians by artists who lived during the seventeenth century and the open- ing years of the next.

We may also mention Bastiano Ricci of Belluno, whose work dis- plays vivacity of colour and composition, and Antonio Balestra , remarkable for his draftsman- ship and the facility of his brush. Battista Gomaro Piscopia Proc. Giambattista Piazzetta surpassed all others in vigour and imaginative power, though he is sometimes heavy in colour. Side by side with this school of painters who sought grandiosity of apparent effects, there arose another more graceful and more refined.

Mythology, too, seemed to have exhausted its founts of beauty ; too many Venuses had smiled seductively from the clouds, too many nymphs had displayed the charms of their rosy nakedness. Now, as if in opposition, there sprang to life an art adorned with all the elegance and gal- lantry of that joyous century ; and Pietro Longhi, Ro- salba Carriera, Antonio Canal called Canaletto , and Francesco Guardi portray for us the graces of their age.

Longhi shows us the subtle refinements of do- mestic life ; Rosalba has left us portraits of patrician ladies, in pastels that outvie the brush in the delicacy of their tints on flowers and silk and the smoothness of velvety. That visible poetry which transpires from the stones and the waters of Venice — a poetry that was caught by some of the Quattrocentisti, but neglected by the mas- ters of the Ginquecento, though their backgrounds are inspired by a profound sympathy with the spirit of places and things — came to life again on the canvases of the artists of the late Seicento, first with Luca Garle- varis ii73o of Udine, and then, and with greater charm, in Ganaletto and Guardi, who give us a living and veracious Venice in all its multiform aspects, in its contrasts and its harmonies of atmosphere.

Both mas- ters revel in the portrayal of their beloved city, — Cana- letto, clear yet not crude, free yet never violent ; Guardi, less severely conceived, but more smiling, more gay. Venetian art was thus being swayed be- tween the emphatic and artificial manner and the school of refinement and elegance when her ancient splendour seemed to arise again with Tiepolo i Tiepolo was no less powerful with burin than with brash, and his crowding fancies were transferred to metal with admirable vigour.

His two sons, Giandomenico i — his father s most successful imitator — and Lorenzo b. The artistic revival took a vigorous bent during the last century of the Republic, and the bond between art and the Ufe of the city was close. The other collection is hy Garla Gaterina Petina, a Frenchwoman, who engraved and published at Padua in 1 69 1 several pictures chiefly of the Venetian school.

Giambattista Tiepolo and Silvestro Maniago were the draughtsmen, and Zucchi and Rossetti the engravers. Antonio Visentini also engraved several works bj Ganaletto, and in 1 74 1 Michele Marieschi published a collection of views of Venice.

Glorification of the Virgin, by Tiepolo. The whole parish of the Garmini was en file for the unveiling of Tiepolo's ceiling in the Scuola, on June a, I But in Venice, even in the Seicento, in the midst of the flood of barocco which threatened to sweep all before 1 Zanetti, Gir. Guardi pittore della contrada dei SS. Apostoli su le Fondamente Nove, buon scolaro del rinomato Canaleto, essendo molto riuscito per via della camera ottica, di pingere sopra due non piccole tele, ordinate da un forestiere inglese, le vedute della Piazza S.

Marco verso la chiesa e Torologio, e del ponte di Rialto e sinistre fabbriche verso Gannaregio, oggi le rese esposte sui lateral! The early art found its votaries, and the works of the old masters and antique objects of virtu were sought for and collected with loving discrimination by patricians, prelates, bankers, and merchants. Among the gems was a great diamond valued at a5,ooo ducats. Spon et Wheler, Voy. Maria procuratore et Federico Senatore fratribus Theopulii.

In a catalogue of the more important pictures was compiled, and it was forbidden, sotto pena delta pabblica indignazione, to export or sell them ; nor might they be restored senza il previa riconoscimento. He was succeeded in by Giambattista Mengardi. Di alcuni pezzi che sono in casa di nobili ne domandano tre o quattro mila doppie, piit che non si fanno quattrini nei nostri paesi, cosa che mi fa piu che meravigliare.

Tnis picture was presented in i to the King of France. Ill, 5o, 5i records that the English consuls in Venice were dealers in works of art.

Consul Joseph Smith made a fortune by dealing in pictures and books, and Moschini mentions other strangers who made collections of pictures which eventually crossed the Alps. Smith employed Giovanni Sasso and Luca Breda to restore canvases in his palace. The delicate task of restoration was entrusted to Pietro Edwards, who in opened his studio in the monastery of SS.

In the seventeenth century, when the Dominicans of SS. The Venetian government never forgot the noble tra- ditions of Venetian art, and Venetian artists freouently applied to it for help and sometimes for satisfaction for petty vanity.

Their prayer was heard, and the State recognised the new Collegio dei pittori. Disclotto miU scudi sta esquisita Zogia da Daniel Nis fu negociada. At the close of the century the demand arose for the formation of an academy, on the model of those already created in other cities, with professors, collections of engravings and casts, and a life school.

The demand was repeated in the eigh- teenth century, and at last, on September 30, , the Senate opened an Accademia di pittura e scaltura in the Com Exchange at San Marco. From modest beginnings the Academy gradually enriched itself with engravings and casts, drew up its statutes, and ap- pomted its Council, of which Giambattista Tiepoio was named President, on February 5, In one of therooma in the present office of the Harbour Master there is tiie following inscription let into the wall: II Serenissimo Principe fa sapere, et per ordine del Magistrato eccel.

Riforma- tori dello ftumo di Padova, che non vi sia alcuna persona, di che grado e condiiione esser si voglia, che ardisct sotto alcun colore e pretesto mtro- dursi in questo pub. Anzolo Ciontarini Pr Riformator. The walls of the school were adorned with valuable works of art, and among its pupils was Antonio Ganova.

The two Colleges of Sculptors and Painters were not, however, absorbed by the new Acad- emy, and rivalry and jealousy between these bodies were rife. The munificence of private patrons seconded the efforts of the government. The Pisani family in opened another academy under the direction of Pietro Longhi. The private lives of these artists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries preserved an even tenour in contrast to the general habit of their age, and were free from the viciousness which stained the fair name of their brothers in other countries, especially in the Seicento.

The violence of their compositions by no means reveals the nature of these men. The artist is restless, the individual placid ; the imagination revels in confused and disordered phantasies, but the mind remains calm and well balanced, and in their private life these masters refuse to allow their art to ruffle the harmonious movement of their days. This serenity and calm endowed them with health and long life ; and many of them seem to have inherited from Titian, if not his genius, at least his dissociation from cares and worries and his sound constitution.

To take only a few examples from the Seicento, Bambini, Lazzarini, and Longhena reached the age of eighty-six, Palma Giovane eighty-four, Liberi eighty-two, the architect Benoni seventy-six, Domenico Tintoretto and Andrea Vicentino seventy-five, the Aliense seventy-three. Their ART AND LIFE 85 lives were passed in perfect comfort, for even their extraordinary rapidity of production could not suffice to keep pace with the orders that poured in upon them from the government, the Church, corporations, and private individuals.

Some light is thrown upon the private life of these men and their relations with their patrons by a contract and the correspondence which passed between the Comune of Salo and Palma and the Aliense. Antonio Vassilacchi, called the Aliense, was a Greek by birth, a native of Milo, who came to Venice in his fifteenth year and at first followed Veronese but later on attached himself to Tintoretto.

Jacopo Palma had his schooling from his father, Antonio, a poor painter himself, but brother of Palma Vecchio. Jacopo was summoned to Urbino by the Duke, who took him under his protection ; he returned to Venice in , and with the help of Alessandro Vittoria he acquired a fine reputation, which was secured when the death of Paolo and Tintoretto left the field free of dangerous rivals. In the course of his varied and active career he constantly had the assistance of colleagues and pupils ; and among these was the Aliense, with whom his relations were not always harmonious.

These quarrels, however, did not end in scuffles, blows, and wounds, as happened so often in the other countries, but in suits which lined the pockets of the lawyers, who, as Ridolfi assures us, managed to make a con- siderable hole in the fortune of the Aliense.

Arch, dellt Mtgnifict Pttrit, Gomune di Stl6. Lett, di Giovtnoi Btit Deltiolo Februtry 3, i6oa. Zacharia di Venetia le feste passate di Resurretione, aci5 fosse giudicate a giudicio universale.

Restane ora che per adempir Fobligo nostro, giusto il tenor della scrittura, che dette opere sii giudicate da persone peritte nella proffesione. Giovanni e Paolo ; and as though this distinguished company were not enough for him, he placed above the tomb a picture representing Genius and Fame. Pietrp Liberi likewise enjoyed a long and happy life. He was bom in humble circumstances at Padua.

It is said that his surname well described his habits, which in his youth were very free ; and his art seems to reflect this bent. He amassed a handsome fortune, and called in Sebastiano Mazzoni to build for him the massive palace at San Samuele on the Grand Canal, which later became the property of the family of Lin. Lett, di Giovanni Batt. He acquired fame and fortune, was appointed master builder to the Re- public, and died at tne age of eighty-six, on February i8, 1 68 1, in his house in the Gorte Rotta at San Severo.

He was a small man, always dressed in black, and al- though a very bold designer, was of a gentle, even timid, manner, which prevented him from ever opposing any one whose opinions differed from his own, and led him as a rule to adopt the views of others.

ART AND LIFE 89 The eighteenth century offers the same note of serenity as regards the lives of its artists, and we know but few details of their careers, which proves that they were not troubled by grave misfortunes or strange adventures. Bosalba Carriera, who expressed in her art all the gentle- ness of her nature, alone, toward the close of her days, lost that feUcity which had so long smiled upon her.

She was bom on October 7, ; her father Andrea was a native of Ghioggia and factor to the Procuratore Bon, and her mother, Angela Foresti, anembroideress. Rosalba was all goodness, and sought to preserve the peace of the family, preferring that company to any other; she was the friend and teacher of her sisters, also gifted maidens. Angela married the painter, Antonio Pellegrini, and Giovanna, the good Nenetta, who was Rosalba's constant companion and painted along with her in their modest house at San Vio, accompanied her to Paris and to Vienna, and left her plunged in grief when she died, in Eight years later Rosalba was stricken by another terrible misfortune, the loss of her sight.

She was operated on for cataract and recovered her powers, but, by a cruel irony of fate, only for a few months, and those eyes which had drunk in the joy of colour and hght were finally darkened forever.

She passed the dolorous close of her days thinking of her past achievements, which had never made her haughty, and on her fortune, which was now too large for her desires or her wants. She died in , and was buried in the church of San Vio by the side of her Nenetta. Giambattista Piazzetta was but httle more fortunate. IV, Le Gallerie Nazionali it. Longhi, on the other hand, who shares with Rosalba the palm for grace and delicacy in Venetian art of the Settecento, passed a quiet and comfortable life.

We know little else about him save that he was bom in a, of a modest family of goldsmiths, and that in boyhood he followed that craft; that he studied under Balestra and became director of Pisani's academy. We do not know for certain when he died; there is no doubt, however, that if he did not outlive his eightieth year he came near to it.

Nor is it less curi- ous to note that this transcriber of every-day life and habits, who may fairly be called the Goldoni of the brush, was actually united in bonds of friendship with the author of the RustegfU, who addressed him in a sonnet beginning: Longhi, tu che la mia musa sorella Ghiami del tuo pennel che cerca il vero.

He was less successful with the pen, though his work on contemporary Venetian artists is not without value. Grimani e la Sig. Goldoni 's sonnet is on p.

Venezia, sold by the author, a. At the age of twentv-two he accompanied his father to Rome, but stayed there only a short time; he returned to Venice and entered a competition with two able rivals, Luca Carlevaris and Marco Ricci, whom he quickly excelled in renown.

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